Government As An Institution Of The State

By FELIX OGEDEGBE
MEANING and Scope Of Government:
Every milieu or state has a set of rules otherwise referred to as law , which are meant to regulate the conduct of its citizens, if it is to function effectively. Once there are rules among members of a particular
state, organisation or community, there should be an agency to enforce these laws.
The body or machinery that makes and enforces these laws in any given state is the government. And the power of government can be divided into three divisions or organs, usually referred to as the three organs of government.
—-Legislature: it is the law making body. While the Executive is the body that enforces or executes the law and the Judiciary is the body that that interprets
the law.
Basically, government is a group of people that makes, interprets and enforces
the law in a given state.An alternative
definition of government is that it is a body of persons and institution that make and enforces the laws for a particular state. The body of persons are either elected or appointed among the citizens of a state to perform the functions of government on their behalf.
The word ‘’institution’’ refer to a series
of accepted and regular procedures for the performance
of government al functions
The belief of those who take to this definition is that the laws have to be made and enforced; but that there are acceptable and regular procedures for making these laws and that there areregular ways by which these laws can be enforced. It is these acceptable and regular procedures that have been referred to as institutions. For example, in any representative government all over the globe, if the government wants to make laws there should be a parliament or legislature constituted for that purpose.
And in a parliament itself, there is a regular procedure for the making of laws. And if these laws have been made they have to be enforced by a body called executive, and when these laws are broken or disobeyed , there are courts of law to interpret and apply the laws to individual cases, is called the JUDICARY. While the body of persons forming the government of a state to perform the functions of government on their behalf is called ‘’’Agency’’ or regarded as the agency of the people.
Government as an institution of the state: Government
is the machinery established by the state to pilot and organise its own affairs and administer its function and duties of the state. It is also the body that formulates the law. It also fortifies the territorial
integrity of the land. It has three arms / organs /branches that function independently, these are the legislature, executive and the judiciary. These are the institutions of the state. Because in any state there has to be the three organs, without which there cannot be a state. Last week we treated the three organs of government.
In any state there has to be rules andregulations referred to as laws or constitutions of the state.A state means a nation- state. These rules are the regulations guiding the behaviour of the men and women. According to Rousseau if not these laws life would be cruel, short, and brutish. And if no government
there will be a lawless society, call anarchy, disorderliness and confusion and mightybe right.
GOVERNMENT AS ART OF GOVERNING:Hence it is an agency that controls the stateto avoiddisorder.
The three organs put together is referred to as government and they specialised in various fields that ensure that the state exist if not, might be right as in those days. Some men like Rousseau, John Locke,Aristotle, Marx Weber and Platoworked tirelessly
in their various ideas to develop this subject called government cum political science.
Functions of the government in the state: One of it to provide food, clothing, shelter, security, , maintenance
of law and order, provision of infrastructure, protection of lives and property, and administration of justice.
GOVERNMENT AS AN ACADEMIC FIELD OF STUDY: Basically in international milieu, the subject
is called Political Science. It has various subdivisions;
these are local government Administration, Public Administration, and international relations, comparative studies and political sociology
STATE: state here means a nation-state or country.
It is defined as a political unit, which has authority
to control a defined geographical area. It is also a group of people or persons who live within a definite territory, such as with definite boundary. Astate is an entity which accepts the government, accept the final authority of government: and accept
the rules and regulationsthat binds all the peopletogether
. This group of people may be linked together
by blood, language, culture and past history. It comprises of group of people with diverse blood relations.
A state can also be defined as an organised political
community with the apparatus of government in place. The late President of U.S. A Woodrow Wilson also defined state as a particular place that consists of people, Associations and the government.
FEATURES OR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STATE
1. Territory is one of the essential features of the state, it distinguishes the state from a nomadic tribe
2. Population and membership: membership is compulsory. Man becomes a member of the state at birth. He cannot disown his membership though he can transfer his citizenship by naturalisation. Modern
states range from 18000 Andorra people and 800million Chinese. It is vital for their fortune, because
human beings are one of the greatest resources
in nation building when properly utilised.
3. Astate must have government, it is the agency through which the state, thewillof the state is expressed
and realised.
4. Sovereignty:It means the supremacy and the power of the state to make lawsand enforce themwith
the means of coercion it cares to apply. Sovereignty
distinguishes from other Associations, clubs, individuals.
Internal sovereignty was the power which the state claims to make and enforce laws upon the individuals,
associations, and corporate bodies within the areas ofjurisdiction., Externally, it means the independence
of foreign control. A state must have its own independence, because the state has complete freedom to conduct its complete own domestic and foreign policies without prior consent being necessary
from any other authority. This differentiate it from countries like protectorates and colonies which have a degree of independence but no full control over their own affairs.
Nation: It is a body of people united by a common descent, a common language, territory, history and geographical entity
5 it must have laws / constitution binding all individuals
within the boundaries, It acts as the cohesive element within the society. It has the monopoly of coercive power and all acts can be legalised if so authorised
by the state.6 It has permanence, no change of rules or form of government can alters the continuity
of the state’s existence.